July 16, 2011

Collections of receipes for Figs

Figs facts
            The Egyptians, being preoccupied with their digestion, had habit of fasting. The fig, having mild laxative properties, appealed to them as food which was delicious as well as good for them. Figs are rich in calcium, iron, phosphorus and potassium. Vitamin C and the B group vitamins are also present in small quantities. They are also high in fiber. Figs have the highest overall mineral content of all common fruits. A 40 grams serving provides 244 mg of potassium 53 mg of calcium and 1.2 mg of iron. Figs are fat-free, sodium-free and cholesterol-free.
            Ants are great pollinators. Because the fig, actually the flower of the fig tree, attract ants through the small opening in the end of the fruit. The ants go in search of the sweetness offered, packing up pollen on their feet. This is brought to the next fruit.
            The trade caravan routes of old spread figs far and wide, although possibly not far and wide as the bird population of the world has managed to do over the centuries, with their propensity for eating the seeds through one end and popping them out of the other end with a little dose of fertilizer to ensure their survival in a new place.

Fresh Fig Preserves
Baking Soda                             :           2 Tsp
Fresh Figs (stems removed)      :           5 cups
Water                                       :           1 cup
Granulated Sugar                      :           1 ½ cups
Butter                                       :           5 Tbsp
Vanilla Essence             :           1 Tsp
Sliced Lemon                           :           1
Lemon juice                              :           1 Tbsp
Ground Cinnamon                    :           1 ½ Tsp
Grated fresh ginger                   :           1 Tsp
Ground cloves                          :           ½ tsp
Salt (optional)                           :           1 pinch or to taste
Half- pint canning jars with lids and rings 8 Nos.
Dissolve the soda in about 2 quarts of water, and immerse the figs in the treated water in a large bowl. Gently stir to wash the figs, then drain off the water and rinse the figs thoroughly with fresh cool water. Place the figs in to a large pot. Add I cup water, sugar, butter, vanilla extract, lemon, lemon juice, cinnamon, ginger, and cloves. Very gently stir the mixture to dissolve the sugar, keeping the figs intact as much as possible.
            Bring the mixture to a boil over medium heat: reduce heat to a simmer, and cook until the figs are golden brown coated in syrup, about one hour. Stir gently a couple of times to keep the figs from burning on to the bottom of the pot. Add a pinch of salt, if desired, to tame the sweetness.
            Sterilize the jars and lids in boiling water for at least 5 minutes. Fill the figs into the hot, sterilized jars and top off with syrup, filling the jars to within ¼ inch off the top. Run a knife or a thin spatula around the inside of the jars after they have been filled to remove any air bubbles. Wipe the rims of the jars with a moist paper towel to remove any food residue. Top with lids, and screw on rings.
            Place a rack in the bottom of a large stockpot and fill halfway with water. Bring to a boil over high heat, and then carefully lower the jars into the pot using a holder. Leave a 2 inch apart between jars. Pour in more boiling water if necessary until the water level is at least 1 inch above the top of the jars. Bring the water to a full boil, cover the pot, and process for 15 minutes.
            Remove the jars from the stockpot and place onto a cloth-covered or wood surface, several inches apart, until cool. Once it is cool, press the top of each lid with a finger, ensuring that the seal is tight. Cool in a cool, dark area, and wait at least 2 days before opening.

Spinach Salad with Figs and Feta cheese.

Olive oil                                    :  ¼ cup
Lemon Juice                             :  1 Tbsp
Garlic ( finely chopped) :   ½  Tsp
Honey                                      :   ¼ Tsp
Pepper                                     :   1/8 Tsp
Spinach stemmed                      :   1 Pound
Yellow capsicum                      :    1 (cored, seeded and julienned)
Red onion (thinly sliced)            :    ½ cup
Feta cheese (crumbled) :    ¼ cup
Toasted pecan pieces               :    ¼ cup
Fresh figs (halved lengthwise):   8

Whisk together oil, lemon juice, garlic, honey and pepper in a large bowl to make the dressing. Add spinach, capsicum and red onions and toss gently to combine. Divide between four plates, and then sprinkle each salad with feta cheese and pecans. Arrange figs on plates with salad and serve.

Turkey breast with Figs.

Cooking oil                               :           2 Tbsp
Turkey breast pieces                 :           2
Leeks (white and light green parts)   :2
Garlic minced                           :           2 large cloves
Chicken broth or stock :           1 cup
Fresh figs (cut into half lengthwise)        : 1 ½ cups
Salt and pepper to taste.

Heat oil in a large skillet over medium- high heat. When pan is hot, add turkey and brown on one side for about 3 minutes. Turn and brown the other side for the same length of time. (Note: The timing will depend on the thickness of your turkey slices. If it is very thin cutlets, cut this time in half). Reduce heat to medium. Stir in leeks and garlic and stir-fry for just a minute to let the veggies start to cook. Add broth/stock, cover the pan and cook for about 3-4 minutes. Add figs, stir well, and cover the pan again. You only need to let the figs heat through and become soft, perhaps another 3 minutes. Adjust seasonings, adding more salt and pepper if desired, and serve.
Roast figs with cinnamon

Figs                                          :           12 nos
Thyme                                      :           1 tsp
Clear honey                              :           3 tbsp
Butter                                       :           25 grams
Orange juice                             :           1 tbsp
Ground cinnamon                     :           ½ tsp

Preheat the oven to 190 degree Celsius. Put the honey, butter and cinnamon in a small saucepan. Heat gently, stirring, until liquid. Using a small, sharp knife, make a cut like across in the top of each fig, cutting almost down to the base. Place them upright in a roasting pan, splaying them out as you go. Pour the liquid over each one. Roast for 15 minutes. Sprinkle a bit of thyme over each fig. Return to the oven; switch it off, leaving the door ajar. Leave the figs in the oven for 5-10 minutes before serving.
Lamp leg with figs and lemons.

Leg of Lamp (fat trimmed)                    :           1 (5 to 6lb)
Fresh or dried thyme leaves                  :           1 tsp
Rosemary sprigs 4or5 or dried rosemary           2 tsp
 Black figs ripe                          :           12
Lemons                                                :           2
Stock                                                   :           1 ½ cups
Balsamic Vinegar                                  :           2 tbsp
Whipping cream                                   :           ¼ cup

Rinse lamp and pat dry. Sprinkle lightly with salt and set in a shadow 10 by 15 inch pan. Pat thyme all over meat: lay rosemary sprigs in the leg. Rinse figs and lemons, cut figs in half lengthwise through stems and lay, cut side up, around lamp. Trim off and discard ends of lemons, then thinly slice lemons crosswise and discard seeds. Scatter slices over and around figs. Pour the vinegar into pan. Sprinkle fruit with sugar.
Bake in a 400degree regular or convection oven until a thermometer inserted through thickest part of meat to the bone reaches 130 degree, about 1 ½ hours. As liquid evaporates, add more wine to pan to prevent scorching. Occasionally, turn fruit gently. The edges of the pieces should get dark: if fruit starts to scorch, remove pan.
Transfer roast and fruit to a platter and keep warm. Discard rosemary sprigs. Add enough broth to pan to make about ¾ cup juices total, then add cream. Bring to a rolling boil over high heat, stirring to release browned bits. Pour into a small bowl or pitcher. Slice lamp and serve meat and fruit with pan juices, add salt to taste.

                                                           For all Receipes Courtesy  Friday Times

July 01, 2011

Fig fruit facts & finds


In this  article  I am going to introduce you a very delicious fruit among Asians specially Arabs. The Egyptians  being preoccupied with their digestion , had a habit of fasting . The fig , having mild laxative properties , appealed to them as food which was delicious as well as good for them. Figs are rich in Calcium ,Iron, phophorus and potassium. Vitamin C and the B group vitamins are also present in small quantities. They are also high in fibre. Figs have the  highest overall mineral content of all common fruits. A 40 gram serving provides 244 mg of potassium,53 mg of calcium and 1.2 mg of iron . Figs are fat-free and cholesterol-free.

Ants are great pollinators.Because the fig, actually thee flower of the fig tree, attract ants through the small opening in the end of the fruit. The ants go in search of the sweetness offered, picking up pollen on their feet. This is brought to the next fruit.

The trade caravan routes of old spread figs far and wide , although possibly not as far and wide as the bird population of the world has managed to do over the centuries, with their propensity for eating the seeds through one end and popping them of the other end with a little dose of fertilizer to ensure their survival in a new place. More information are below…… 

Fig trees

Sycamore Fig, Ficus sycomorus
Scientific classification


Ficus  is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes, and hemiepiphyte in the family Moraceae. Collectively known as fig trees or figs, they are native throughout the tropics with a few species extending into the semi-warm temperate zone. The Common Fig (F. carica) is a temperate species native to southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (from Afghanistan to Portugal), which has been widely cultivated from ancient times for its fruit, also referred to as figs. The fruit of most other species are also edible though they are usually of only local economic importance or eaten as bushfood. However, they are extremely important food resources for wildlife.] Description

A Ficus carica
Ficus is a pan-tropical genus of trees, shrubs and vines occupying a wide variety of ecological niches; most are evergreen, but some deciduous species are endemic to areas outside of the tropics and to higher elevations. Fig species are characterized by their unique inflorescence and distinctive pollination syndrome, which utilizes wasp species belonging to the Agaonidae family for pollination.
The specific identification of many of the species can be difficult, but figs as a group are relatively easy to recognize. Many have aerial roots and a distinctive shape or habit, and their fruits distinguish them from other plants. The fig fruit is an enclosed inflorescence, sometimes referred to as a syconium, an urn-like structure lined on the inside with the fig's tiny flowers. The unique fig pollination system, involving tiny, highly specific wasps, known as fig wasps that enter these closed inflorescences to both pollinate and lay their own eggs, has been a constant source of inspiration and wonder to biologists. Finally, there are three vegetative traits that together are unique to figs. All figs possess a white to yellowish sap (latex), some in copious quantities; the twig has paired stipules or a circular stipule scar if the stipules have fallen off; and the lateral veins at the base of the leaf are steep, forming a tighter angle with the midrib than the other lateral veins, a feature referred to as a "tri-veined".
There are no unambiguous older fossils of Ficus. However, current molecular clock estimates indicate that Ficus is a relatively ancient genus being at least 60 million years old, and possibly as old as 80 million years. The main radiation of extant species, however, may have taken place more recently, between 20 and 40 million years ago.
Some better known species that represent the diversity of the genus include the Common Fig which is a small temperate deciduous tree whose fingered fig leaf is well-known in art and iconography; the Weeping Fig (F. benjamina) a hemi-epiphyte with thin tough leaves on pendulous stalks adapted to its rain forest habitat; the rough-leaved sandpaper figs from Australia; the Creeping Fig (F. pumila), a vine whose small, hard leaves form a dense carpet of foliage over rocks or garden walls. Moreover, figs with different plant habits have undergone adaptive radiation in different biogeographic regions, leading to very high levels of alpha diversity. In the tropics, it is quite common to find that Ficus is the most species-rich plant genus in a particular forest. In Asia as many as 70 or more species can co-exist.

Ecology and uses

Coppersmith Barbet feeding on White Fig (Ficus virens) fruit
Figs are keystone species in many rainforest ecosystems. Their fruit are a key resource for some frugivores including fruit bats, capuchin monkeys, langurs and mangabeys. They are even more important for some birds. Asian barbets, pigeons, hornbills, fig-parrots and bulbuls are examples of taxa that may almost entirely subsist on figs when these are in plenty. Many Lepidoptera caterpillars feed on fig leaves, for example several Euploea species (Crow butterflies), the Plain Tiger (Danaus chrysippus), the Giant Swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes), the Brown Awl (Badamia exclamationis), and Chrysodeixis eriosoma, Choreutidae and Copromorphidae moths. The Citrus long-horned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis), for example, has larvae that feed on wood, including that of fig trees; it can become a pest in fig plantations. Similarly, the Sweet Potato Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is frequently found as a pest on figs grown as potted plants and is spread through the export of these plants to other localities. For a list of other diseases common to fig trees, see List of foliage plant diseases (Moraceae).

Leaves of the Sacred Fig (F. religiosa)
The wood of fig trees is often soft and the latex precludes its use for many purposes. It was used to make mummy caskets in Ancient Egypt. Certain fig species (mainly F. cotinifolia, F. insipida and F. padifolia) are traditionally used in Mesoamerica to produce papel amate (Nahuatl: āmatl). Mutuba (F. natalensis) is used to produce barkcloth in Uganda. Pou (F. religiosa) leaves' shape inspired one of the standard kbach rachana, decorative elements in Cambodian architecture. Indian Banyan (F. bengalensis) and the Indian Rubber Plant, as well as other species, have use in herbalism.

A page from the Mexican Huexotzinco Codex, painted on āmatl
Figs have figured prominently in some human cultures. There is evidence that figs, specifically the Common Fig (F. carica) and Sycamore Fig (F. sycomorus), were among the first – if not the very first – plant species that were deliberately bred for agriculture in the Middle East, starting more than 11,000 years ago. Nine subfossil F. carica figs dated to about 9400–9200 BC were found in the early Neolithic village Gilgal I (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho). These were a parthenocarpic type and thus apparently an early cultivar. This find predates the cultivation of grain in the Middle East by many hundreds of years.

Cultural and spiritual significance

Fig trees have profoundly influenced culture through several religious traditions.  Among the more famous species are the Sacred Fig tree (Pipal, Bodhi, Bo, or Po, Ficus religiosa) and the Banyan Fig (Ficus benghalensis). The oldest living plant of known planting date is a Ficus religiosa tree known as the Sri Maha Bodhi planted in the temple at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka by King Tissa in 288 BC. The common fig is one of the two sacred trees of Islam, and there is a sura in Quran named "The Fig" or At-Tin (سوره تین), and in East Asia, figs are important in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. The Buddha is traditionally held to have found bodhi (enlightenment) while meditating under a Sacred Fig (F. religiosa). The same species was Ashvattha, the "world tree" of Hinduism. The Plaksa Pra-sravana was said to be a fig tree between the roots of which the Sarasvati River sprang forth; it is usually held to be a Sacred Fig but more probably seems to be a Wavy-leaved Fig (F. infectoria). The Common Fig tree is cited in the Bible, where in Genesis 3:7, Adam and Eve cover their nakedness with fig leaves. The fig fruit is also included in the list of food found in the Promised Land, according to the Torah. Jesus cursed a fig tree for bearing no fruit. The fig tree was sacred in ancient Cyprus where it was a symbol of fertility.

Fig pollination and fig fruit


A Common Fig syconium (fruit)
Many are grown for their fruits, though only Ficus carica is cultivated to any extent for this purpose. Furthermore, the fig fruits, important as both food and traditional medicine, contain laxative substances, flavonoids, sugars, vitamins A and C, acids and enzymes. However, figs are skin allergens, and the sap is a serious eye irritant. The fig is a false fruit or multiple fruit, in which the flowers and seeds grow together to form a single mass. The genus Dorstenia, also in the figs family (Moraceae), exhibits similar tiny flowers arranged on a receptacle but in this case the receptacle is a more or less flat, open surface.
Depending on the species, each fruit can contain up to several hundred to several thousand seeds.

Figs, fresh
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
310 kJ (74 kcal)
19 g
- Sugars
16 g
- Dietary fiber
3 g
0.3 g
0.8 g
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
1,041 kJ (249 kcal)
64 g
- Sugars
48 g
- Dietary fiber
10 g
1 g
3 g
Percentages are relative to for adults.

A fig "fruit" is derived from a specially adapted type of inflorescence (an arrangement of multiple flowers). In this case, it is an involuted, nearly closed receptacle with many small flowers arranged on the inner surface. Thus the actual flowers of the fig are unseen unless the fig is cut open. In Chinese the fig is called wú huā guǒ (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese: 無花果), "fruit without flower In Bengali, where the Common Fig is called dumur, it is referenced in a proverb: tumi jeno dumurer phool hoe gele ("You have become [invisible like] the dumur flower").
The syconium often has a bulbous shape with a small opening (the ostiole) at the outward end that allows access to pollinators. The flowers are pollinated by very small wasps that crawl through the opening in search of a suitable place to lay eggs. Without this pollinator service fig trees could not reproduce by seed. In turn, the flowers provide a safe haven and nourishment for the next generation of wasps. This accounts for the frequent presence of wasp larvae in the fruit, and has led to a coevolutionary relationship. Technically, a fig fruit proper would be one of the many tiny mature, seed-bearing flowers found inside one fig – if you cut open a fresh fig, the flowers will appear as fleshy "threads", each bearing a single seed inside.
Fig plants can be monoecious (hermaphrodite) or gynodioecious (hermaphrodite and female).  Nearly half of fig species are gynodioecious, and have plants with inflorescences (syconium) with long styled pistillate flowers, or have plants with staminate flowers mixed with short styled pistillate flowers.  The long flowers styles tend to prevent wasps from laying their eggs within the ovules, while the short styled flowers are accessible for egg laying.
All the native fig trees of the American continent are hermaphrodites, as well as species like Indian Banyan (F. benghalensis), Weeping Fig (F. benjamina), Indian Rubber Plant (F. elastica), Fiddle-leaved Fig (F. lyrata), Moreton Bay Fig (F. macrophylla), Chinese Banyan (F. microcarpa), Sacred Fig (F. religiosa) and Sycamore Fig (F. sycomorus).
On the other hand the Common Fig (Ficus carica) is a gynodioecious plant, as well as F. aspera, Roxburgh Fig (F. auriculata), Mistletoe Fig (F. deltoidea), F. pseudopalma, Creeping Fig (F. pumila) and related species.
The hermaphrodite Common Figs are called "inedible figs" or caprifigs; in traditional culture in the Mediterranean region they were considered food for goats (Capra aegagrus). In the female fig trees, the male flower parts fail to develop; they produce the "edible figs". Fig wasps grow in Common Fig caprifigs but not in the female syconiums because the female flower is too long for the wasp to successfully lay her eggs in them. Nonetheless, the wasp pollinates the flower with pollen from the caprifig it grew up in. When the wasp dies, it is broken down by enzymes (Ficain) inside the fig. Fig wasps are not known to transmit any diseases harmful to humans.
When a caprifig ripens, another caprifig must be ready to be pollinated. In temperate climes, wasps hibernate in figs, and there are distinct crops. Common Fig  caprifigs have three crops per year; edible figs have two. The first (breva)  produces small fruits called olynth. Some parthenocarpic cultivars of Common Figs do not require pollination at all, and will produce a crop of figs (albeit sterile) in the absence of caprifigs or fig wasps.
There is typically only one species of wasp capable of fertilizing the flowers of each species of fig, and therefore plantings of fig species outside of their native range results in effectively sterile individuals. For example, in Hawaii, some 60 species of figs have been introduced, but only four of the wasps that fertilize them have been introduced, so only four species of figs produce viable seeds there. This is an example of mutualism, in which each organism (fig plant and fig wasp) benefit each other, in this case reproductively.
The intimate association between fig species and their wasp pollinators, along with the high incidence of a one-to-one plant-pollinator ratio have long led scientists to believe that figs and wasps are a clear example of coevolution. Morphological and reproductive behavior evidence, such as the correspondence between fig and wasp larvae maturation rates, have been cited as support for this hypothesis for many years.  Additionally, recent genetic and molecular dating analyses have shown a very close correspondence in the character evolution and speciation phylogenies of these two clades.
Various culinary uses are in the next post…………….